Numéro
J. Phys. IV France
Volume 120, December 2004
Page(s) 481 - 488
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jp4:2004120055


J. Phys. IV France 120 (2004) 481-488

DOI: 10.1051/jp4:2004120055

Influence of transformation plasticity on residual stresses and distortions due to the heat treatment of steels with different carbon contents

C. Franz1, G. Besserdich2, V. Schulze1, H. Müller1 and D. Löhe1

1  Institut für Werkstoffkunde I, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany
2  ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany


Abstract
The simulation of manufacturing processes is more and more becoming an important tool in simultaneous engineering. The aim is to cut the time necessary for development and to optimise processes by simulation of the complete manufacturing chain. The field of heat treatment offers a large variety of applications for the use of simulation tools. Heat treatment of steels always includes the development of residual stresses and distortions. The geometry of the part, the composition of the material, the heat treatment process as well as the initial state of the part interact with each other in complex ways and have an influence on the distortion of the part. Using simulation the temporal development of temperature, phases, stresses and distortions while quenching as well as the residual stress distribution and distortion after quenching can be calculated. Transformation plasticity has been proved to be very important for heat treatment simulation. Three steels with identical contents of alloying elements but different carbon contents of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 wt.-% were analysed. The transformation plasticity constants for the martensitic transformation under tensile as well as compressive stresses were determined by quenching hollow specimen with nitrogen. Distortions and residual stresses were examined experimentally with cylinders made out of the three steels. Additionally, simulations of the quenching process of the cylinders were taken into account in the analysis of the experimental findings.



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