J. Phys. IV France
Volume 112, October 2003
Page(s) 417 - 420

J. Phys. IV France
112 (2003) 417
DOI: 10.1051/jp4:2003914

FEM simulations of a multi stage forming process on Sandvik maraging steel 1RK91 describing the stress assisted and the strain induced martensite transformation

J. Post1, J. Huétink2, H.J.M. Geijselaers2 and R.M.J. Voncken3

1  Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care, LTM, P.O. Box 20100, 9200 Drachten, The Netherlands
2  University of Twente, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 217, 7500 Enschede, The Netherlands
3  Philips Centre for Industrial Technology, P.O. Box 218, 5600 Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Sandvik steel IRK91 combines good corrosion resistance with high strength. The steel has good deformability in austenitic conditions. This material belongs to the group of metastable austenites, so during deformation a strain-induced transformation into martensite takes place. After deformation, transformation ccontinues as a resuit of internai stresses. Depending on the heat treatment, this stress-assisted transformation is more or less atitocatalytic. Both transformations are stress-state and temperature dependent. This article presents a constitutive model for this steel, based on the macroscopic material behaviour measured by inductive measurements. Both the stress-assisted and the strain-induced transformation to martensite are incorpomted in this model. Path-dependent work hardening is also taken into account. The model is implemented in the commercial FEM code MARC for doing simulations. In the simulations thé tools are treated as rigid bodies, friction is taken into account beeause it inflnences the stress state during metal forming. The material properties after a calculation step are mapped to the next step to incorporate the cumulative effect of the transformation and work hardening during the different steps.

A multi-stage metal-forming process is simulated. The process consists of different forming steps with intervals between them to simulate the waiting time between the different metal-forming steps. Results of the transformation behaviour are presented together with the shape of the product during and after metal forming. Finally, this article shows the results of the calculation in which the material transforms autocatalytic, as a resuit of a specific heat treatment.

© EDP Sciences 2003