J. Phys. IV France 107 (2003) 463
Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashesC. Ferreira1, 2, A. Ribeiro3 and L. Ottosen2
1 CERNAS, Escola Sup. Agraria, 3040-316 Coimbra, Portugal
2 Department of Civil Engineering, DTU, Denmark
3 DCEA, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g/kg for zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash.
© EDP Sciences 2003