J. Phys. IV France 107 (2003) 1197
The influence of Cracow urban pollution on small forest areasK. Sawicka-Kapusta, J. Gdula-Argasinska, D. Budka, M. Zakrzewska and K. Szpakowska
Jagielllonian University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Monitoring, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland
The impact of Cracow conurbation on small forest ecosystems was studied during the last four years (1998-2001). Seven sites located at different distances from the city and from busy road were selected. Lichen Hypogymnia physodes from unpolluted areas were transplanted 10 each of investigated sites for 6-month period (winter 1998/1999, 1999/2000, summer 2000). The quantity of litter fall with percentage cmposition of each species was estimated, also the input of litter and heavy metals to the forest floor were evaluated. Metal concentration (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe) in Hypogymnia physodes, leaves of common oak, hornbean and litter fall were determined in IL 251 flame AAS. Acute injuries of lichen thalli as well as concentrations of Pb, Zn, Fe and S were higher after winter transplantation and in sites located close to Cracow conurbation. High concentration of heavy metals were noticed in tree leaves from eastem transect as the effect of steel works emission as well as in those sites from southem transect situated nearby the city. Although air pollution har generally declined in the Malopolska district over the last few years the metal concentration and input to the forest flow in 2001 remains at the same level than in the previous years.
© EDP Sciences 2003