J. Phys. IV France 104 (2003) 349
Mapping of physiological and trace elements with X-PEEMB.H. Frazer1, 2, B.R. Sonderegger1, B. Gilbert3, K.L. Richter4, C. Salt5, L.M. Wiese1, D. Rajesh5, S.P. Howard6, J.F. Fowler6, M.P. Mehta6 and G. De Stasio1
1 Department of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, Wl, U.S.A.
2 Institut de Physique Appliquée, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
3 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.
4 Bob Jones University, Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.A.
5 University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
6 University of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI 53792, U.S.A.
We present chemical mapping of all physiologically relevant elements at the subcellular level, as well as the trace element Gd. A broad energy range (60-1200 eV) is fundamental to investigate all the elements in the same microscopic locations. Concentrated elements ( >100 ppm) can be simply mapped by image ratio, while dilute species must be treated with great care to avoid artifacts. We propose a new method to obtain location maps of trace elements.
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