International Seminar on Mechanics and Mechanisms of Solid-Solid Phase Transformations
J. Phys. IV France 06 (1996) C1-187-C1-196
Evaluation of Cladding Residual Stresses in Clad Blocks by Measurements and Numerical SimulationsP. Dupas and D. Moinereau
Research and Development Branch, EDF, Centre des Renardières, Route de Sens, BP. 1, 77250 Moret-sur-Loing, France
Reactor pressure vessels are internally clad with austenitic stainless steel. This welding operation generates residual stresses which can have an important role in integrity assessments. In order to evaluate these stresses, an experimental and numerical programme has been conducted. The experiments includes cladding operations, macrographic analyses, temperature and residual stresses measurements with different methods. According to these measurements, transversal stresses (perpendicular to the welding direction) and longitudinal stresses (parallel to the welding direction) are highly tensile in stainless steel and they are compressive in the HAZ. Finite element calculations were used to simulate both welding operations and post weld heat treatment. These calculations coupled the thermal, metallurgical and mechanical aspects in a 2D representation. Different models were studied including effect of generalised plane strain, transformation plasticity, creep and tempering. The transversal stresses calculated are similar to the measured ones, but the longitudinal stresses showed to be very sensitive to the model used. As expected because of the two-dimension model, the longitudinal stresses can't be well estimated. More work is needed to improve measurements of stresses in depth (important differences appeared between the different methods). A predictive model would be also very useful to determine the thermal loading which is at present dependant on measurements. A 3D calculation appears to be necessary to evaluate longitudinal stresses.
© EDP Sciences 1996